A wave which has been reflected at one or more points in the transmission medium. Echoes may be leading or lagging the primary signal, and appear in the picture monitor as reflections or double images commonly known as ghosts.[BAVC]

Edge curl

Usually occurs on the outside one-sixteenth inch of the videotape. If the tape is sufficiently deformed it will not make proper contact with the playback heads. An upper curl (audio edge) crease may affect sound quality. A lower curl (control track) may result in poor picture quality [BAVC]

Edge damage

Physical distortion of the top or bottom edge of the magnetic tape, usually caused by pack problems such as popped strands or stepping. Edge damage effects audio and control track, sometimes preventing playback. [BAVC]

Edit decision list (EDL)

List of edits performed during on-line editing. The EDL can be a handwritten list or computerized set of instructions used to direct the final outline editing assembly of the video programs. [BAVC]

EGA (Enhanced Graphics Array)

EGA is an image which displays 640 pixels by 350 lines with 16 colors from a palette of 64 colors. [Projector People]


Standard tape format for 1/2" VTRs after 1969. [BAVC]


Element is an umbrella term used to refer to an individual videotape or piece of film that is used to create a production. The term can be used to refer to a number of different types of media, including original field tapes, submasters, graphics tapes, audio recordings, etc. [IMAP]


A tape binder condition resulting from polymers that have chemically meshed & tightened resulting in a less supple tape. [BAVC]


A digital preservation strategy that uses current software to simulate original or obsolete computer environments. May either restore full functionality to archival data or provide a simple viewing mechanism. [Getty]


Encapsulation is a strategy for digital media preservation that groups a digital object with all other entities that are necessary to provide access to that object. In encapsulation, physical or logical structures called "containers" or "wrappers" provide information about the relationships between all data and software application components. Encapsulation aims to overcome the issue of obsolete file formats by including details on how to interpret the original information. [IMAP]


Electronically adjusting the quality and sharpness of a video image.[BAVC]


Loss of signal on the tape, resulting from extreme temperatures defined as above 275 F/175 C [or other intentional means]. See Degauss. [BAVC]

Evaluator machine

See Cleaning / Cleaner machine.


See Retensioning.

Exhibition format

Tape or disc copies that are used expressly for frequent playback, as opposed to master tapes should only be played as part of the archival process. The criteria for a good exhibition format are different from that of an archival format. For example hard disc, DVD and laser disc are all good exhibition formats for video as they are reliable and because playback is made possible without mechanical deterioration to the media as a result of being played. This is important where a video is on display all day every day. Although in the near future it is likely that we will see uncompressed digital video being streamed from hard discs for display, it is more common that the video is compressed. Such compression would not be acceptable for the master copy but may be a compromise that is acceptable for display. Each media have different advantages and disadvantages, but the important point is to be clear that the criteria for display may be different than for archiving for example the display of a complex video work may require reliable frame-accurate synchronization. [BAVC]


A dissolve from full video to black video or from full audio to no audio.[BAVC]


The transmission of a video signal from point to point. [BAVC]


A loop caused by audio or video signal being fed back into itself. In video the effect is caused when a camera is directed at its receiving monitor. In audio the effect, manifested as an echo or squeal, is caused when a microphone is aimed at a speaker. [BAVC]

Fiber optic

Fiber optic technology uses glass (or plastic) threads (fibers) to transmit data. A fiber optic cable consists of a bundle of threads, each of which is capable of transmitting messages modulated onto light waves. Advantages over traditional metal lines include greater bandwidth, less susceptibility to interference, and digital transmission of data. [EAI]


Fiber-filled envelopes generate dust that is damaging to magnetic tape formats and should not be used to ship videotapes under any circumstances.[EAI]


The building blocks that create cataloging records. Each field stores one particular type of information. [IMAP]


FireWire (also known as i.Link or IEEE 1394) is a personal computer and digital video serial bus interface standard that offers high-speed communications and real-time data services. Since 1995, almost all digital camcorders have included a FireWire connection. All Macintosh computers currently produced have built-in FireWire ports, as do all Sony PCs and many PCs intended for home or professional audio/video use. [EAI]


A horizontal displacement of the upper portion of a picture. Also called skewing. [BAVC]


The round disc on either side of a tape reel. [EAI]

Flange pack

A condition where the tape pack is wound up against one of the flanges of the tape reel. [AMIA]


An animation technology developed by Macromedia Inc. for use on the Web. Compared to other image formats such as GIFs and JPEGs, Flash files download faster and can employ scripting to enable sophistiocated interface design. Unlike open formats such as DHTML, Flash scripts cannot be viewed directly by a user. [Variable Media]

Flat screen

A CRT made more flat than a standard tube by using more than one electron gun. Beneficial to people who require concise reproduction and great detail such as graphic designers. [Projector People]


Picture distortion mainly related to vertical syncs and video fields display. Some flicker typically exists due to interlacing and is more apparent in 50HZ systems (PAL). Flicker also shows when static images are displayed on the screen, such as computer generated text transferred to video. Poor digital image treatment, found in low quality system converters (going from PAL to NTSC and vice versa) creates annoying flicker on the screen. There are several electronic methods to eliminate flicker. [BAVC]


Very short rapid variations in tape speed which may result in a jumpy or jittery picture. [BAVC]

Focal length

Focal length is the distance between the lens and its focal point. A smaller focal length indicates a wider-angle lens. [Projector People]